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入菩萨行讲义 第一讲 菩提心功德品

导读:第一讲 菩提心功德品 Lecture 1 Chapter One The Benefit of the Awakening Mind 日期:二零零二年十二月七日 《入菩萨行》(Bodhicharyāvatāra)是印度寂天菩萨(Shantideva, 650-700A.D.)1所著,内容阐明持守菩提心的利益和它的意思;如何让菩提心在我们心内生起;生起菩提心之后,如何让它不退转,如何让它日日增上...
第一讲 菩提心功德品 Lecture 1 Chapter One The Benefit of the Awakening Mind 日期:二零零二年十二月七日 《入菩萨行》(Bodhicharyāvatāra)是印度寂天菩萨(Shantideva, 650-700A.D.)1所著,内容阐明持守菩提心的利益和它的意思;如何让菩提心在我们心内生起;生起菩提心之后,如何让它不退转,如何让它日日增上;得此善根,最后回向给一切众生,愿众生离苦得乐。全书分十品千颂(确实来算是九百一十一颂)。开宗明义,寂天菩萨首先说明《入菩萨行》是依照释尊遗教,简要说明信受菩萨律仪的方法。由第四颂开始说明持守菩提心利益,重点说明暇满人身难得;此身不向今生度,更向何生度此身?跟着说明行持菩提心有四种利益:第一,比一般善行更能对治恶业;第二,佛依自己修行经验,保证行持菩提心事半功倍地获得真正的利益;第三,众生希望追求快乐、远离痛苦的愿求必能实现和第四,发菩提心后,便成佛子,得到佛荫。接着,寂天菩萨以五个譬喻说明行持菩提心的利益:第一,如冶金能转劣为胜的譬喻;第二,佛对欲求出离三界的人作珍贵难得的譬喻;第三,菩提心树得果无尽的譬喻;第四,死囚得有势力者免除定罪的譬喻和第五,如劫火能烧尽一切罪业的譬喻。最后,寂天菩萨引弥勒菩萨在《华严经》向善财童子说:「菩提心的利益广大无量。」又举《妙臂请问经》(Subāhu-paripricchā-sūtra)中佛陀的教示:「所以菩提心获益无边是正确合理的。」2寂天菩萨跟着说明菩提心有两种:愿菩提心和行菩提心。寂天菩萨举了一个例子说明它们的分别:好比一个人想去某处,计划动身就是愿菩提心;真正在旅途中就是行菩提心。在轮回期间发愿菩提心可以得到很大的果报,例如获得胜生,得人天乐果;在此寂天菩萨引了释尊一个本生故事:亲友女这位未来佛,因种下了脚踢母亲头部的恶因,后来在罗剎城感召铁轮旋击,脑汁迸飞的苦果。后因痛极而生起了愿菩提心言:「愿一切如我这种逆子,无情脚踢母亲而招感头疼的恶果,皆由我一人来承担吧。」因而得生天福报。寂天菩萨没有花很多文句来说明行菩提心,但我们知道单是愿菩提心的利益已经这么广大,何况是行菩提心呢?「愿心于生死,虽生广大果;犹不如行心,相续增福德。」「即自彼时(例如守持菩萨戒)起,纵眠或放逸,福德相续生,量多等虚空。」这时大家心中会有一个问题:「发菩提心真的有这么广大的利益?」寂天菩萨提醒我们,父母、欲天、梵天对自己或其他众生的爱护,会比发菩提心广大吗?他们行善的动机会比不为自己而无私地饶益别人的菩提心那么纯净吗?大家以因果道理衡量,便得出一个道理:「珍贵菩提心,众生安乐因,除苦妙甘霖,其福何能量?」还有,其实众生发菩提心,比起用千万个世界来供养佛,能令佛更开心!「仅思利众生,福胜供诸佛,何况勤精进,利乐诸有情!」最后,寂天菩萨举一个譬喻,说明一个发了菩提心、行持菩萨行的人,在两种不同的情况下有什么遭遇:若在逆境时有人无理指责你、损害你,你虽然不动气,没有报复的意图,亦没有无形之手操纵命运,但佛说存心伤害这位菩萨的人,「此人将长期陷住地狱受苦,而且时间长久得像所生邪恶的念头数目一般多。」再者,若你真的发菩提心,行持菩萨行,你便是值得尊敬的人;大家也许会觉得,像寂天菩萨福慧那么深广,都说:「何人生此珍宝心,我即躬身申敬礼!」这会是真的吗?我想,答案留待你一读、再读,把《入菩萨行》全论读三遍,就会领会到这句话不太过火吧!(一)法身3善逝4佛子5伴,及诸应敬我悉礼,今当依教略宣说,入善逝子律仪方。诸佛、正法和菩萨眷属,圆满的佛陀、法宝和所有僧宝,以及所有值得尊敬的圣贤,我在这里向他们恭敬顶礼,现在我要依经教,简略地宣说进入菩萨戒律的方法。Respectfully I prostrate myself to the Sugatas who are endowed with the Dharmakāya, their teaching, as well as to their Noble Sons and to all who are worthy of veneration. Here I shall explain how to engage in the vows of the Buddhas’s Sons, the meaning of which I have condensed in accordance with the scriptures.(二)此论未宣昔所无,诗韵吾亦不善巧;是故未取言利他,为修自心撰此论。这部论没有宣说什么特殊的创见,诗文声韵我也不很精通;因此不敢存有利他的念头,撰写此论主要是为了修习自心。There is nothing here that has not been explained before and I have no skill in the art of rhetoric. Therefore, lacking any intention to benefit others, I write this in order to acquaint it to my mind.(三)循此修习善法故,吾信亦得暂增长;善缘同我诸余人,得见此已亦获益。由于依循这些偈颂修习善法的缘故,我学佛的信心也暂得增长;如我一样具足善缘修学佛法的人,如果有缘见到这些偈颂,以后也将获得利益。For due to acquaintance with what is wholesome, the force of my faith may for a short while increase because of these (words). If, however, these (words) are seen by others equal in fortune to myself, it may be meaningful (for them).(四)暇满6人身极难得,既得能办人生利,倘若今生利未办,后世怎得此圆满?获八闲暇十圆满是极难得的,得此人身极具意义!如今不懂利用此身获益,如此珍贵人身难复再!Leisure and endowment are very hard to find; and, since they accomplish what is meaningful for man. If I do not take advantage of them now, how will such a perfect opportunity come about again?(五)如云覆蔽夜黑暗,闪电光明剎那现;如是因佛威德力,世人暂萌修福意。如同电光冲破黑暗夜,所有遮蔽乌云随即被照破;同样,因佛陀威德力的感召,世间许多人才会生起短暂的修善集福的心意。Just as a flash of lightning on a dark, cloudy night for an instant brightly illuminates all. Likewise in this world, through the might of Buddha, a wholesome thought rarely and briefly appears.(六)以是善行恒微弱,罪恶力大极难当,舍此圆满菩提心,何有余善能胜彼?普通的善业隐藏着弱点,而且非常微弱短暂,不能抵挡恶业习气的势力。只有圆满美妙的菩提心,才能抵挡承受恶业压倒性之强大力量。Hence virtue is perpetually feeble, the great strength of evil being extremely intense. And except for a fully Awakening Mind by what other virtue will it be overcome?(七)佛于多劫深思惟,见此觉心最饶益;无量众生依于此,顺利能获最胜乐。诸佛于多劫以来深刻思惟,清楚明了只有这样(发菩提心)才能救度无边的众生,并且带领他们获致无上之喜乐。 All the Buddhas who have contemplated for many aeons have seen it to be beneficial. For by it the limitless masses of beings will quickly attain the supreme state of bliss.(八)欲灭三有百般苦,及除有情诸苦怖,欲享快乐百千种,恒常莫舍菩提心!谁人欲解脱此生之苦恼,而且又教他人离苦恼,此等赢得殊胜至福者,切莫舍离菩提心。Those who wish to destroy the many sorrows of (their) conditioned existence, those who wish (all beings) to experience a multitude of joys, and those who wish to experience much happiness, should never forsake the Awakening Mind.(九)系生死狱苦有情,若生剎那菩提心,得名诸佛善逝子,人天欢喜悉归命。沉沦轮回苦海系缚生死枷锁的众生,菩提心一旦从心中诞生,此刻即谓诸佛之继承人,备受人天同样的崇敬。The moment an Awakening Mind arises in those fettered and weak in the jail of cyclic existence, they will be named ' a Son of the Sugatas ', and will be revered by both men and gods of the world.(十)犹如最胜冶金料,垢身得此将转成;无价之宝佛陀身,故应坚持菩提心。如同炼金术士选用最殊胜的冶金材料一样,少许的点金剂就能将铁块变成黄金;不净的凡夫肉身一旦得到它,将转成为无价之宝的清净佛身,这就是菩提心。我们必须抓紧它!It is like the supreme gold-making elixir, for it transforms the unclean body we have taken into the priceless jewel of a Buddha-Form. Therefore firmly seize this Awakening Mind.(十一)众生导师以慧观,彻见彼心极珍贵;诸欲出离三界者,宜善坚持菩提心。受苦众生的圆满导师(佛陀),以遍知智慧彻见菩提心无比的价值,我们此等发愿远离六道沉沦苦海的人,应当紧抓这颗珍宝菩提心。Since the limitless mind of the Sole Guide of the World has upon thorough investigation seen its preciousness, all beings wishing to be free from worldly abodes should firmly take hold of this precious Awakening Mind.(十二)其余善行如芭蕉,果实生已终枯槁;菩提心树恒生果,非仅不尽反增茂。其他如芭蕉树之善行,长出果实以后必枯萎而死;唯有殊胜菩提心妙树,结出果实后不但不枯萎,反而欣欣向荣。All other virtues are like the plantain tree; for after bearing fruit they simply perish. But the perennial tree of the Awakening Mind unceasingly bears fruit and thereby flourishes without end.(十三)如人虽犯极重罪,然依勇士得除畏;若有速令解脱者,畏罪之人何不依?如同有人虽犯下极重的罪行,然而他们投靠勇士,得以解除险境违缘的恐惧。菩提心令人迅速解脱恶趣,那么害怕罪报者为何不依止呢?Like entrusting myself to a brave man when greatly afraid, by entrusting myself to this (Awakening Mind) I shall be swiftly liberated even if I have committed extremely unbearable evils. Why then do the conscientious not devote themselves to this?(十四)菩提心如劫末火,剎那能毁诸重罪。智者弥勒谕善财:彼心利益无限量。如劫末之火燃烧,极大罪恶最终都会被菩提心所殆尽(吞噬)。所以说其利益堪称广大无量,正如弥勒菩萨对善财所开示的一样。Just like the fire at the end of an age, it instantly consumes all great evil. Its unfathomable advantages were taught to the disciple Sudhana by the wise Lord Maitreya.(十五)略摄菩提心,当知有二种7:愿求菩提心,趣行菩提心。菩提心简单来说可分二:愿菩提心为一;付诸实践的行菩提心为二。In brief, the Awakening Mind should be understood to be of two types: the mind that aspires to awaken and the mind that ventures to do so.(十六)如人尽了知,欲行正行别;如是智者知,二心次第别。志欲起行和实际踏上这道路,就是其分别。因此智者和学者必须明白其分别是有次第和渐进的。As is understood by the distinction between aspiring to go and (actually) going. So the wise understand in turn the distinction between these two.(十七)愿心于生死,虽生广大果,犹不如行心,相续增福德。愿菩提心可使沉沦苦海的众生生出很大果报,但不能像行菩提心一样,相续不断地生出福德。Although great fruits occur in cyclic existence from the mind that aspires to awaken, an uninterrupted flow of merit does not ensue as it does with the venturing mind.(十八)何时为度尽,无边众有情,立志不退转,受持此行心。无论从什么时候开始,唯愿令无边众生,就在当下此刻开始得解脱,而立志不退转地受持行菩提心。And for him who has perfectly seized this mind with the thought never to turn away from totally liberating the infinite forms of life.(十九)即自彼时起,纵眠或放逸,福德相续生,量多等虚空。即从此时起,一种伟大无休止之暖流,一种殊胜功德的力量,就算是在睡眠漫不经心时,也如广大虚空般生起。From that time hence, even while asleep or unconcerned. A force of merit equal to the sky will perpetually ensue.(二十)为信小乘者,妙臂问经8中,如来9自宣说:其益极应理。如来应妙臂的提问,向小乘者开示:「菩提心的利益,广大无量;极合乎道理,毫无谬误。」For the sake of those inclined towards the lesser (vehicle), this was logically asserted by the Tathāgata himself in The Sūtra Requested by Subāhu.(二十一)若仅思疗愈,有情诸头疾10,具此饶益心,即得无量福。若有人仅想到我要疗愈众生头疼的疾病,拥有如此饶益众人的心,就已经可以获得无量的福德。If even the thought to relieve living creatures of merely a headache is a beneficial intention endowed with infinite goodness.(二十二)况欲除有情,无量不安乐,乃至欲成就,有情无量德。更何况是希望能驱走每一众生无有间断的痛苦,甚至是令每一个众生皆得佛果的成就,将会为其带来无量极大之福德,就更不用多说了。Then what need is there to mention the wish to dispel their inconceivable misery, wishing every single one of them to realize boundless good qualities?(二十三)是父抑或母?谁具此心耶?欲天或诸仙11?梵天12宁有此?我们的父母亲们可曾拥有此等无私之愿心?试问天人、阿修罗,乃至大梵天,可曾也怀有此等善心?Do even fathers and mothers have such a benevolent intention as this? Do the gods and rishis? Does even Brahma have it?(二十四)彼等为自利,尚且未梦及,况为他有情,生此饶益心?上述那些人即使是为了自利,过去也从未曾生起,就连造梦也不曾梦过此种饶益心;何况为的是别人的利益,而生起这种愿心呢?If those beings have never before even dreamt of such an attitude for their own sake, how would it ever arise for the sake of others?(二十五)他人为自利,尚且未能发,珍贵此益心,能生诚希有!对自己真正的利益尚且也忽视,又怎会志愿利益他人呢?此种心境(菩提心)极为宝贵尤稀有,如能真诚生起,那真极殊妙呢!This intention to benefit all beings, which does not arise in others even for their own sake, is an extraordinary jewel of the mind, and its birth is an unprecendented wonder.(二十六)珍贵菩提心,众生安乐因,除苦妙甘霖,其福何能量?珍贵的菩提心,是驱走苦痛之拟案,亦是那些在世间漂流的众生的安乐泉源–此宝贵的心妙宝,岂可被测量估计呢?珍贵的菩提心是众生安乐之源,亦是能医治他们所有痛苦的万应灵丹。如果我们这样了解的话,其功德又怎能衡量呢?How can I fathom the depths of the goodness of this jewel of the mind, the panacea that relieves the world of pain and is the source of all its joy?(二十七)仅思利众生,福胜供诸佛,何况勤精进,利乐诸有情。仅是生起利他的念头,价值已经较礼敬诸佛还要殊胜了,对此实践利生之行为,更是不用说了。If merely a benevolent intention excels venerating the Buddhas, then what need to mention striving to make all beings without exception happy?(二十八)众生欲除苦,反行痛苦因,愚人虽求乐,毁乐如灭仇。 虽然众生都想远离苦难,但(为恶习所迫)却造作诸恶业,结果招致更多的苦报。虽然众生都想追求快乐,但因无明愚痴,而将自己一切乐因乐果,如同怨敌般去摧毁。Although wishing to be rid of misery, they run towards misery itself. Although wishing to have happiness, like an enemy they ignorantly destroy it.(二十九)于诸乏乐者,多苦诸众生,足以众安乐,断彼一切苦,(行菩提心)能使缺乏安乐的苦恼众生充满喜乐,并能使苦恼的众生远离一切痛苦及烦恼。 For those who are deprived of happiness and burdened with many sorrows, it satisfies them with all joy and dispels all suffering.(三十)更复尽其痴;何有等此善!何得似此友!岂有似此福!若有人能将无明黑暗驱赶–有什么功德较菩提心更胜?有什么朋伴较菩提心更好?有什么福德与菩提心之福德近似?And clears away confusion. Where is there a comparable virtue? Where is there even such a friend? Where is there merit similar to this?(三十一)若人酬恩施,尚且应称赞,何况未受托,菩萨自乐为。世人尚且应去称赞那些能知恩报恩的人,更何况是菩萨在没有任何条件的情况下,仍默默地利益世间有情,此大恩大德,又何用再多说呢?If whoever repays a kind deed is worthy of some praise, then what need to mention the Bodhisattva who does good without its being asked of him?(三十二)偶备微劣食,嗟施少众生,令得半日饱,人敬为善士。有些人施给少数几个饥饿的众生,虽然只是轻蔑地给人,而且更是不足一天之食用–已被全世界人吹捧为善士。The world honors as virtuous a man who sometimes gives a little, plain food disrespectfully to a few beings that satisfies them for only half a day.(三十三)何况恒施与,无边有情众,善逝无上乐,满彼一切愿。何况是那些时常为无边众生带来佛果无比喜悦,并且圆满众生心中终极之意愿的菩萨,那更不消说了。What need be said then of one who, eternally bestows the peerless bliss of the Sugatas upon limitless numbers of beings, thereby fulfilling all their hopes?(三十四)如是博施诸佛子,若人于彼生恶心,佛言彼当住地狱,长如所生心数劫。那些心怀恶念(意)的人,与博施济众之佛子为敌,佛说这类人一定堕入地狱,而他生起恶心有多少剎那,就会在地狱中受多少个劫的苦。The Buddha has said that whoever bears an evil thought against a benefactor such as that Bodhisattva will remain in hell for as many aeons as there were evil thoughts.(三十五)若人于彼生净信,得果较前还增胜;佛子虽逢大艰难,然罪不生善自增。相对地,若有人尊敬菩萨,又对他们产生好和善良的信心,将带来很多丰富的果实。就算是处于逆境中,菩萨是从不会为别人带来恶运(缘)的。同样,菩萨行善时纵然遭遇障难,不仅不会生罪过,反而增长善行。But if a virtuous attitude should arise (in that regard), its fruits will multiply far more than that. When Bodhisattvas greatly suffer they generate no negativity, instead their virtues naturally increase.(三十六)何人生此珍宝心,我即躬身申敬礼!谁令怨敌得安乐,愿归命彼安乐源!有谁生起这颗善妙珍贵之心灵,我向他敬礼!有谁使伤害自己的怨敌获得安乐,我愿皈依这众生安乐的泉源!I bow down to the body of him in whom the sacred precious mind is born. I seek refuge in that source of joy who brings to happiness even those who harm him.第一品完第一讲完注释1寂天菩萨是印度那烂陀十七大班智达之一,其它的大班智达分别是龙树、圣天、佛护、清辩、月称、寂护、莲华戒、无着、世亲、陈那、法称、圣解脱军、狮

入菩萨行讲义 第一讲 菩提心功德品

子贤、德光、释迦光和阿底峡。这十七位大班智达几乎相等于印度大乘佛教。2从下面当代殿堂级大班智达达赖喇嘛的真情表白,我们可以看到修习菩萨行和发菩提心的重要。他于一九九九年在美国印第安那州一次演讲中说:「我常常提到我个人的经验,三十岁时思惟空性的道理;感觉烦恼可以断除,因此深信涅槃确实存在,绝非捏造,灭谛一定可以成办。那时虽然觉得菩提心很殊胜,但与我之间不太接近,好像没有甚么希望能得以成办。后来反复地读《入菩萨行》,一次又一次的串习,发现菩提心的感受不是字面上的解释,确实有深奥的内涵;当下想完全投入,全心全意的去修持!原本距离遥远的菩提心,如今已愈来愈接近了!」3法身(Dharmakāya):通常解作佛的实相身。法身最明显的是不随人的色身坏灭而消失,却是长存于天地间,具恒常义。此外,法身亦可指佛所说的法(the body of the teachings)。这颂似指后者,用意是描述佛法僧三宝。4善逝(Sugata):佛的十号之一,“su”指巧妙,“gata”犹如“gone”,逝去之意;指到达觉悟的彼岸而不再退回生死苦海。5菩萨众是指佛的继承者,他们发愿利益众生才成佛。这里指的是见道位和修道位的贤圣菩萨。因他们安住于菩萨地,因此是殊胜的皈依对象。6为了完成觉悟道路,我们必须具备八种闲暇和十种圆满。八种闲暇是指:不生而为(1)地狱;(2)饿鬼;(3)傍生;(4)长寿天道;(5)蛮荒边地无教法修持之众生;(6)对因果业力等具邪见之众生;(7)无佛出生时期和地方和(8)身心具缺陷之众生。十圆满包括(1)五种自圆满:(i)生而为人;(ii)生于中土,即有佛法的地方;(iii)生而为诸根具足的人;(iv)不因业力牵引致造极大恶业的人和(v)对佛法充满信心的人。(2)五种他圆满是:(i)佛已应时应机出现于世;(ii)佛已说法;(iii)佛法仍存;(iv)仍有人修持正法;(v)已被灵性上师所摄受。7此外,我们要知道有二种菩提心,世俗菩提心是为了利益众生而发愿成佛,而胜义菩提心是证悟空性。寂天菩萨虽未明显说出这两种菩提心,但其义却贯穿整部《入菩萨行》。 8梵文Subāh

入菩萨行讲义 第一讲 菩提心功德品

u-paripricchā-sūtra。梵文原典已佚,只有汉译本存世。9Tathāgata:如来,佛十种尊称之一,由梵文tathā和āgata组成。前者是such,如此的意思,后者是来的意思。如来是指已经觉悟的人格,由真理而来,随顺真理而化现于世,是踏上与过去诸佛相同道路而示现的人。10是释尊本生故事。释尊有一世为商主亲友女时,曾不听母亲劝阻出海寻宝,后因脚踢亲母;结果于罗剎城感铁轮旋击、脑汁迸飞的痛苦。而又因痛极而发菩提心言:「愿一切如我这种逆子,无情脚踢亲母而招感头疼的恶果,由我一人承担这痛苦。」因此而得生天福报。11根据古印度传统,仙人(rishis)是能听到吠陀之声音的圣者,并且能够把吠陀传到人间,是天和人之间沟通的桥梁。12吠陀认为大梵天是宇宙的开创者。 应用讨论问题一)我们应怎样研习一部传统的佛教经论?二)为什么经典开首之前要列梵文经名?三)何谓佛子?佛子有几多类?你认为哪类佛子最可贵?四)试述寂天菩萨造《入菩萨行》的目的。五)《入菩萨行》一论,在藏传佛教中占何地位?六)生而为人,具足八暇十圆满是发菩提心最好机会。试解释何谓八闲暇和十圆满;以现代人的角度阐述为什么下一世或迟些才修行是不值得认同的呢?七)发菩提心很困难,首先要做到不与别人争利,甚至牺牲自己利益,而且人道善弱恶强,我们要依靠佛的加持,才能暂时稳住善心,让它慢慢发展。对此,寂天菩萨曾引一比喻,试述之。八)我们生于五浊恶世,世间罪恶力大,自己的恶业烦恼又多,修行佛法的力量又弱,为什么发菩提心就能战胜众多恶势力?发菩提心就能消众罪?(例如试以一猫可捕多鼠为喻。)九)最具智慧的诸佛,用最深刻的思惟,以多劫的时间才得出一个结论:菩提心是获得最胜乐的因,最能饶益众生。但事实上,很多发了菩提心的人,为什么在修行道上,仍不知要受多少磨难和挫折?你对此甘心情愿吗?十)寂天菩萨认为所有学佛的人,包括三士道的行人,都要发菩提心:上士固以利益大众,但下士道以追求人天安乐,中士道只求个人解脱,这是否矛盾;试申论之。十一)文中以六种东西比喻菩提心的利益,试分别说明之。十二)「以前我们发了愿菩提心,但因

入菩萨行讲义 第一讲 菩提心功德品

障重退转而失毁,我觉得很惭愧,没有勇气在三宝前再发菩提心」。这是初学佛者常遇的经验,这想法是否错了?应该怎样办?十三)愿菩提心的特点是保持在证佛果间,功德平衡不消失;而行菩提心的特点是生起后,功德时刻不停增长。试引论文评述之。十四)发心成菩萨,并踏出了「行菩提心」的第一步,怎样验证这一点?十五)小乘修行人很害怕发大乘菩提心后,要花三大阿僧祇劫这么长的时间去修行,甚至还要布施身体生命;但世尊在《妙臂请问经》中开导这些小乘人,亲口说发菩提心是最快成佛的方法,试引其文申述之。十六)试述文中疗愈头疾的故事典故。十七)仙人、帝释和梵天皆有某种程度的慈悲心,例如仙人有极高智慧与神通,帝释为世间怙主,梵天行四无量而得福果,这些是否与菩提心相同?仙人、帝释和梵天理想的人间是怎样的?菩萨希望的人间又是怎样的?十八)世俗菩提心是属于了义或不了义?如何是不了义?我们还要修学吗?胜义菩提心又如何? 十九)众生皆喜欢追求快乐,逃避痛苦;但一般来说,为了短暂利益或无明业惑,反而会去造恶业,并且消灭一切乐因。而寂天菩萨认为,只有菩提心才是安乐因,才是除苦甘露。试引论文引证之。二十)试总说菩提心的功德。二十一)论文说:一个杀害全地球的人类和抢夺他们所有财产的人,与对一个菩萨生起恶心相比,后者严重性大得多!其理由安在?