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入菩萨行讲义 第二十讲 静虑品

导读:第二十讲【静虑品】 Lecture 20 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零五年二月五日 上次讲座把大乘实修静虑二大法门中自他平等已作介绍。今次主要介绍自他相换。怎样实践自他相换?寂天菩萨在第一三七至一三九颂说:「意汝定当知:『吾已全属他』。除利有情想,切莫更思余。」;「不应以他眼,成办自利益;亦莫以眼等,邪恶待众生」;「故当尊有情;己身所有物,见已咸取出,广利...
第二十讲【静虑品】 Lecture 20 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零五年二月五日 上次讲座把大乘实修静虑二大法门中自他平等已作介绍。今次主要介绍自他相换。怎样实践自他相换?寂天菩萨在第一三七至一三九颂说:「意汝定当知:『吾已全属他』。除利有情想,切莫更思余。」;「不应以他眼,成办自利益;亦莫以眼等,邪恶待众生」;「故当尊有情;己身所有物,见已咸取出,广利诸众生。」这三颂包含了自他相换的原则;从另一个观点,这三颂可归纳为二点:「取爱他者」和「舍自爱」;取爱他者意即珍惜众生,爱护众生;他以观世音菩萨为例,「怙主观世音,为除众怖畏,涌现大悲心,加持自圣号。」;为了让众生远离一切怖畏,寻声救苦,菩萨特别加持自己的圣号。「若人在群众面前祈请我名号三次,这人离一切怖畏。」这种加持力是密法,亦是自他相换速疾能救护自己与众生的明证。「舍自爱」是自他相换第二种方法;寂天菩萨指出舍自爱最具体的是「视己为仇」,把自身看成是最大的敌人,这亦是噶当派修自他相换的不二法门,「粗恶秽言我取受,愿将胜利奉献他。」这种「自他相换」教言,是修行人秘密修持的最殊胜要诀,不能在别人面前炫耀,而应当在心相续中修炼。例如昔日伽喀巴格西(Geshe Chekawa, 1101-1175)专一观修六年而得断除我执(见《心止师教》第二册第九十五页)。最后,寂天菩萨通过从自享或施他、损己或害他、自高或荐他、役自或役他,比较了自爱与爱他的利害得失,然后得出结论:必须修行自他相换。他又提醒修行人,自己因发过誓愿将自身一切奉献给众生,便不能再因谋求己利而伤害有情,应舍自己所拥有的一切而利乐众生;「何需更繁叙?凡愚求自利,牟尼唯利他,且观此二别!」往昔世尊由利他而圆满一切功德;我们往昔由于自利,而至今仍在痛苦当中;「唯一利他」是每个修行人自始至终应遵循的正道。(一一一)如于他精血,本非吾身物,串习故执取,精血聚为我。就像父母精血所聚成的受精卵,本来就不是我的身体,但因无始以来串习的缘故,自己错误地将它执取为我。Although the drop of sperm and blood is alien and in itself devoid of entity, yet, because of strong habituation, I recognize and claim it as my “I”. (一一二)如是于他身,何不执为我?自身换他身,是故亦无难。同样,由其他精血聚合而长成的他人身体,为何不能观为我呢?以自身替代他身受苦,按道理不应有任何困难。Why, then, not identify another’s body, calling it my “I”? And vice versa, why should it be hard, to think of this my body as another’s?(一一三)自身过患多,他身功德广。知已当修习,爱他弃我执。自身,是众多祸患的渊薮;他人,是广大功德之源;认清这个道理后,就应当精勤修习断弃对身的执爱,慈爱他人。Seeing then the faults that come from cherishing myself, the oceanic qualities that come from loving others, I shall lay aside all love of self and gain the habit of adopting others.(一一四)众人皆认许,手足是身肢。如是何不许:有情众生分?每个人都会把手脚等肢体当成是身体的一部份而珍惜爱护;那么我们为何不同样把每一位有情都当成众生(指六道中所有众生)的一部份而保护呢?Hands and other limbs are thought of as the members of a body. Shall we not consider others likewise – limbs and members of a living whole?(一一五)于此无我躯,串习成我所;如是于他身,何不生「我」觉?因习惯成自然,在无我的身躯上竟然产生了「我」的错觉;同样,我们也可以用同一种方法观修他人为我所,为什么不能生起「我」的感觉呢?Just as in this form, devoid of “I”, the thought of self arose through long habituation, why, upon the aggregate of living beings, should not the thought of “I”, through habit, be imputed?(一一六)故虽谋他利,然无骄矜气;如人自喂食,未曾盼回报。因此,菩萨虽然一心为人谋福利,但是心里却无丝毫骄矜之气;就像自己给自己喂饭一样,从来不会希求回馈或善报。Thus when I work for others’ sake, no reason can there be for boasting or amazement. For it is just as when I feed myself – I don’t expect to be rewarded.(一一七)微如言不逊,吾亦慎回护;如是于众生,当习悲护心。1对微如他人不逊言词的痛苦,我也会谨慎小心地防范,以免受伤害;对众生的任何痛苦,我也应该同样地对待,常修悲心去爱护。Just as I defend myself, therefore, from all unpleasant happenings however small, likewise I shall act for others’ sake to guard and to protect them with compassion.(一一八)怙主观世音,为除众怖畏,涌现大悲心,加持自圣号。2因此,大悲怙主观世音菩萨为了消除众生畏惧、不安恐慌,慈悲地加持自己的名号,使称念圣号者获得平安宁静。This is why the Lord Avalokita out of great compassion blessed his name, that those caught in the midst of multitudes might be released and freed from every fear.(一一九)闻名昔丧胆,因久习近故,失彼竟寡欢,知难应莫退。从前连听到名字都令人发抖的仇敌,由于长久亲近,和乐相处的缘故,现在不见人影反而闷闷不乐;因此要有耐心,千万不要逃避困难3。And so we should be undeterred by hardships, for by influence of use and habit, people even come to grieve for one whose very name strikes terror in their hearts!(一二零)若人欲速疾,救护自与他,当修自他换,胜妙秘密诀。如果有人想以迅速有效的方法救护自他,以免除一切痛苦,那他应当修习自他相换菩提心这殊胜秘密的成佛妙诀。Those desiring speedily to be a refuge for themselves and other beings should interchange the terms of “I” and “other,” and thus embrace a sacred mystery.(一二一)贪着自身故,小怖亦生畏。于此生惧身,谁不似敌瞋?由于贪着自己的身体,导致我们对微小的困难也生起畏惧痛苦。对这恐惧之源的自身,哪个智者会不当作怨敌一样瞋恨呢?Because of our attachment to our bodies, we’re terrified by even little things. This body, then, this source of so much fear – who would not revile it as the worst of enemy?(一二二)千般需疗除,饥渴身疾者,捕杀鱼鸟兽,伺机劫道途。贪爱自身的人,会千方百计地为了解除饥渴和疾病而不惜捕杀池鱼与飞鸟走兽,甚至埋伏于道中伺机劫夺路人。Wishing to relieve our bodies’ ills, our hungry mouths, the dryness of our throats, we lie in wait along the road and steal the lives of fishes, birds, and deer. (一二三)或为求利敬,乃至杀父母,盗取三宝物,以是焚无间。 有人为了财利和别人的恭敬承侍,甚至杀害亲生父母,盗取三宝的财物,因而堕落无间地狱,被烈火焚烧。And for the body’s service and advantage, some there are who even kill their parents, or steal what has been offered to the Triple Gem, because of which, they’ll burn in deepest hell.(一二四)有谁聪智者,欲护供此身?谁不视如仇?谁不轻蔑彼?哪个有智慧的人会去贪执爱护和供养这个身体呢?哪位智者会不把它视如怨仇呢?哪位智者会不轻视厌离它呢?Where then is the prudent man who wants to pamper and protect his body? Who will not ignore and treat with scorn what is for him a dangerous enemy?(一二五)若施何能享,自利饿鬼道。自享何所施?利他人天法。「如果全部布施了,自己怎会有享受之物呢?」这种自私悭吝,是饿鬼之道。「如果自己享用完了,拿什么去布施呢?」这种利他的善念,是人天善道之法。“If I give this, what will be left for me?” Thinking of oneself – the way of evil ghosts. “If I keep this, what will be left to give?” Concern for others is the way of heaven.(一二六)为自而害他,将受地狱苦。损己以利人,一切圆满成。为己利益而损害别人,将堕地狱遭火烧;为利他人不惜损害自己,将于处处得成就。If to serve myself I harm another, I’ll suffer later in the realms of hell. If for others’ sake I harm myself, every excellence will be my heritage.(一二七)欲求自高者,卑愚堕恶趣。回此举荐他,受敬上善道。那些只求自己高高在上的傲慢者,来世一定会投生于苦境、低下阶层和变得愚痴。如果扭转这种自高的心态而荐举尊敬他人,便能得到更好的投生、受到别人的尊敬和得智慧。Wanting what is best for me – stupidity and lower realms result! Let this be changed, applied to others – honors and the realms of bliss will come!(一二八)为己役他者,终遭仆役苦。劳自以利他,当封王侯爵。为了自己安乐而役使他人者,最终会遭受转成仆役,倍受被奴役的苦痛。为了利益他人而不惜劳碌自己的人,将来会转为王侯,享有官爵权势。Enslaving others, forcing them to serve me, I will come to know the state of servitude. But if I labor for the good of others, mastery and leadership will come to me.(一二九)所有世间乐,悉从利他生;一切世间苦,咸

入菩萨行讲义 第二十讲 静虑品

由自利成。所有世间安乐都是从利益别人的善法而生;所有世间上的痛苦都是由谋求自我利乐而形成。All the joy the world contains has come through wishing happiness for others. All the misery the world contains has come through wanting pleasure for oneself.(一三零)何需更繁叙?凡愚求自利,牟尼唯利他,且观此二别!这何须再多费唇舌去解说呢?凡愚始终追求自利,得到的只有痛苦;诸佛一心利益众生,终成正觉;只要观此二者的差别,便可明白。Is there need for lengthy explanation? Childish beings look out for themselves, while Buddhas labor for the good of others; see the difference that divides them!(一三一)若不以自乐,真实换他苦,非仅不成佛,生死亦无乐。如果不能以自身安乐,真实地替换别人的痛苦的话,结果不但不能成就佛果大安乐,就算在生死轮回中,也不会得到快乐幸福。If I do not give away my happiness for others’ pain, enlightenment will never be attained, and even in , joy will fly from me.(一三二)后世且莫论;今生不为仆,雇主不予酬,难成现世利。暂且不论自私自利者来世的果报;在现世,如果一个人不愿委屈自己为人劳动,雇主也不愿支付酬劳给他,这样就连今生的小利乐也无法成办。Leaving future lives outside the reckoning, even this life’s needs are not fulfilled – when servants do not do their work, and masters do not pay the wages earned.(一三三)利他能成乐,否则乐尽失;害他

入菩萨行讲义 第二十讲 静虑品

令受苦,愚者定遭殃。利他,能使自己成就今生后世的安乐;自利,则会失去一切圆满安乐;如果为了自利而伤害他人,以致令到别人受苦,这种愚人一定会遭受灾殃。Casting far away abundant joys that may be gained in this or future lives, because of bringing harm to other beings, I ignorantly bring myself intolerable pain. (一三四)世间诸灾害,怖畏及众苦,悉由我执生,此魔我何用?世间一切灾害、恐怖和痛苦都是从我执而生,那么我还留着这个恶魔干什么呢?All the harm with which this world is rife, all fear and suffering that there is, clinging to the “I” has caused it! What am I to do with this great demon?(一三五)我执未尽舍,苦必不能除;如火未抛弃,不免受灼伤。假如不能完全舍弃自我爱执,必然不能根除一切自他的痛苦;就像不抛弃手中的火,便难免受灼伤一样。If this “I” is not relinquished wholly, sorrow likewise cannot be avoided. For if he does not keep away from fire, a man cannot escape from being burned.有人质疑:我们既然知道对本来不存在的自我执爱是一切痛苦的来源,那么对本来不存在的众生,亦不应执爱;因执我与执众生,同样是分别颠倒。(一三六)故为止自害,及灭他痛苦,舍自尽施他,爱他如爱己。所以为了止息我执造成的自我伤害,也为了永远灭除众生的种种痛苦,我应当将自己完全施舍给他人,爱护众生如同爱惜自己一样。To free myself from harm and others from their sufferings, let me give myself away, and cherish others as I love myself.(一三七)意汝定当知:「吾已全属他」。除利有情想,切莫更思余。心意啊,你一定要了知:「我已经完全属于他人。」因此,除了利益有情外,千万别要再想其余的事了。“For

入菩萨行讲义 第二十讲 静虑品

I am now beneath the rule of others,” of this you must be certain, O my mind. And now no longer shall you have a thought that does not wish the benefit of beings.(一三八)不应以他眼,成办自利益;亦莫以眼等,邪恶待众生。你不应再用属于他人的眼4等肢体,成办自己利益;更不能以属于别人的眼等身肢,造作恶业伤害众生。My sight and other senses, now the property of others – to use them for myself would be illicit. How much more so is it disallowed to use my faculties against their rightful owners?(一三九)故当尊有情;己身所有物,见已咸取出,广利诸众生。5总之,应当尊重有情,以有情利乐为至上,在发现自己拥有某些东西后,应尽量取出布施,广泛地利益其他众生。Thus others will be now my chief concern. And everything I see my body has will all be seized and given for the use and service of all other beings. 第二十讲完 注释1 这句句式与第一百一十颂大致相同,但意义却不一样。第一百一十颂是提醒我们应当平等地观待他人,别人的苦如同自己的苦。而颂一一七则是提醒我们要以保护自己免遭痛苦的力度一样去悲护别人的痛苦。2 在《华严经》中,观世音菩萨(Avalokiteshvara)说:「若有人在群众面前祈请我名号三次,这人离一切怖畏。」3 有位西藏大师说:「有些人听到这种修习自他相换菩提心的法门,须要以自身安乐去换取别人的痛苦,马上心生畏惧,甚至胆颤心惊,觉得自己永远无法修成;而事实上,经长久观修后,自己会时刻不愿离开这种心愿,而且一旦稍有失离,反而会闷闷不乐。」4 这处的他眼是指由于我们发菩提心时已发誓将自身奉献给如母有情,所以眼等一切再不属于自己,而属于其他有情。这句是引伸上颂:「吾已全属他」而演绎。5 智作慧在《入行细疏》中说:「执爱自我与执爱众生,结果是不同的。例如一个人将灯光或珠光误认为宝珠,这两种虽然都是错误认识,但其结果是:误认灯光为宝珠者,毫无所得,而误认珠光为宝珠的,却能循错误认识而得到宝珠。同样,执爱自我,空无所得;执爱众生,最终可得到成就殊胜菩提心。」应用讨论问题一)巴楚仁波切说:「对于已踏上大乘道的修行者来说,观修自他相换菩提心是究竟不退的修行心要。」事实上,很多大成就者以短短时间努力观修,真实地以自身代受众生痛苦,自身安乐施予众生。心是很奇妙的,只要你订下目标,然后反复观修,就一定可达到这目标。试从你听过的修行者的故事,引证并阐述自他相换的可能性及功德。二)噶当派大德认为发心修行的人应与世俗人不同,修行人要爱他弃我执,因为自己是一切过失的来源,而他人是一切功德的来源。他说:「世间人对自我特别护惜,但修行人对自我应予以抛弃,而不能与世人的行为相同。世人为了『我』在争先恐后的堕落,他们一切作为、一切琐事,全部都是围绕着『我』,而修行人希求向上解脱,所以自己应反其道而行之,应该全部为了利益他人,否则修行人怎么能称之为修行人呢?」你同意吗?试引〈静虑品〉颂一一三提出「爱他弃我执」的修行方法和根据。三)「无缘大慈,同体大悲」,菩萨长期串习,将有情观修成自己一部份。当有情受苦,菩萨便能寻声救苦。所以肯定观世音菩萨是修自他相换的成就者。你会从今日起先关心身边的人的冷暖,不再麻木,推而及之,关心全世界的人的苦乐,最后像观世音菩萨一样,视众生为自己一部份,爱护珍惜吗?四)试比较颂一一七和颂一一零的意义。五)历来大成就者都重视修持自他相换菩提心,巴楚仁波切这样说:「假如你能真正体证一次的自他相换,不但能清净多劫积累的恶业和障碍,更能圆满广大的福德和智慧,而且也能解脱你将要下堕恶趣邪地之因。」并且提醒说:「修自他相换菩提心的人应保密地修持,将它视为秘诀,终生修持,而不能随意公开宣扬。」试依《入菩萨行》第一二零颂说明。六)噶当派大格西夏惹巴(Sharawa, 1070-1141)说:「修行人如果没有把自身看成敌人,那么最好的上师也无法利益你;当你真正认识自身是最怨毒的敌人,这时外面一切因缘皆可成为修行助缘。」寂天菩萨更将自身视为怨敌,是轮回恐惧的敌人,并强调要顺利生起自他相换菩提心,必先修持「视身如仇」,否则自他相换只是空想。试举颂一二一及一二四以说明。 七)噶当派朗日塘巴说:「我看过许多甚深教言,从这些教言中,了知『我』是一切痛苦的根,利己是一切痛苦的渊源,利他是一切安乐的来源。『粗恶秽言我取受,愿将胜利奉献他。』总结了我们最重要的修法。」《入菩萨行》〈静虑品〉第一二五至一二九颂从自享或施他、损己或害他、自高或荐他和役自或役他,这四点说明利己是一切痛苦的渊源,而利他可得到安乐。试细意说明。