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入菩萨行讲义 第十八讲 静虑品

导读:第十八讲【静虑品】 Lecture 18 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零四年十一月六日 上两次讲座分别讲解断除散乱的方法:外要断舍尘缘,内则断除妄念。引起妄念主要的原因是贪执五欲:财、色、名、食、睡,五者都能使你生起贪欲之心,形成妄念,障碍静虑。在五欲中,寂天菩萨特别提出要对治的是财和色两者。贪恋异性、追求财利会导致无边的苦难,是修行的大障碍;若不断除,绝无...
第十八讲【静虑品】 Lecture 18 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零四年十一月六日 上两次讲座分别讲解断除散乱的方法:外要断舍尘缘,内则断除妄念。引起妄念主要的原因是贪执五欲:财、色、名、食、睡,五者都能使你生起贪欲之心,形成妄念,障碍静虑。在五欲中,寂天菩萨特别提出要对治的是财和色两者。贪恋异性、追求财利会导致无边的苦难,是修行的大障碍;若不断除,绝无成佛的机会。寂天菩萨特别强调要对这些迷乱、不净、无常的财色,生起坚定的厌离。而初机修行人智慧浅少,出离心薄弱,寂天菩萨主张他们要住于寂静无人的山林;住阿兰若除了「事少易安乐」,没有琐事违缘扰恼,并且风景灵秀,使修行人易得「身安」,适宜安住修法。此外,更重要的是:修行人安住在寂静的山林,帮助内心断舍妄念,专心观修贪欲过患。正如《月灯经》说:「仅是生起走到寂静处安住之想,朝彼方向迈出七步,已胜过于恒河沙数劫中向十方诸佛献供的功德。何况是真的走到寂静处安住,功德更胜。」此外,这与第二十五和二十六颂劝人到阿兰若居住的功德不同;第八十五至八十八颂则是描述身处阿兰若的快活欢欣情景。(七十一)复次女垢身,无酬不可得;今生逐尘劳,后遭地狱难。再说,这个(女)身躯虽然是秽物,但倒不是轻易得来的。贪着今生必须为她一辈子奔波劳碌,来世还要因此而饱受地狱等苦难。Furthermore, these unclean (female) bodies are not found without paying a price: in order to obtain them I exhause myself and in future will be injured in the hells.(七十二)少无生财力,及长怎享乐?财积寿渐近,衰老欲何为?孩童时不懂得赚钱;长大以后,凭什么享受欲乐呢?(我们的生命主要就是在为生计而渡过。)盛年之时为了积聚钱财而辛劳,等到钱财积聚起来时,年纪也老了,老年又能为感官上的触乐做得到些什么?As a child I am unable to increase my wealth, and as a youth what can I do (being unable to afford a wife)? At the end of life when I have the wealth, being an old man, what good will sex be then?(七十三)多欲卑下人,白日劳力竭,夜归精气散,身如死尸眠。有些低下阶层而又多欲念的人,做完一整天的工作回家后,身躯如死尸一样,疲累睡在床上(无法享受欲乐)。Some evil and lustful people wear themselves out by working all day and when they return home (in the evening) their exhausted bodies lie prostrate like corpses.(七十四)或需赴他乡,长途历辛劳,虽欲会娇妻,终年不相见。有些人(因服兵役)要远赴他乡,长途跋涉,令身心疲累,徒添烦恼。虽然盼望着和娇妻相聚,可是到头来一年也难相见。Some have the suffering of being disturbed by travel and having to go a long way from home (because of military expeditions). Although they long for their spouses, they do not see them for years at a time.(七十五)或人为谋利,因愚卖身讫,然利犹未得,空随业风去。亦有人为了谋取微薄的薪酬,虽然出卖自己,但仍然永远无法得到应得的财利;不但一无所有,还要随业风漂泊。And some who wish for benefit due to confusion, even sell themselves for the sake of women and the like; but not attaining what they wish, they are aimlessly driven by the winds of others’ actions.(七十六)或人自售身,任随他指使,妻妾纵临产,荒郊树下生。有些人自卖其身,他们一生就只受别人奴役,即使是妻子临产,也要走到森林树下或其他荒郊野地诞子。Some sell their own bodies and without any power are employed by others. Even when their wives give birth, their children fall at the feet of trees and in lonely places.(七十七)欲欺凡夫谓:求活谋生故,虑丧赴疆场,为利成佣奴。被贪欲所蒙蔽的凡夫说:「为了生存,我必须设法赚取养活家口的资财。」虽然生命受到威胁,但仍然要从军,远赴战场;或是为了蝇头小利,做了别人的奴仆。Some fools who are deceived by desire, wishing for a livelihood think, “I shall earn my living (as a soldier);” then, although afraid of losing their lives, they go to war and become slaves for the sake of profit.(七十八)为欲或丧身,或竖利戈尖,或遭短矛刺,乃至火焚烧。有些人贪欲不遂,自杀身亡。有些人因此犯法受刑,身体被人以利戈从下到头顶贯穿,竖在路旁,示众警告。有些人被短矛刺杀;有些人被投入火中烧死。Some lustful people even cut their bodies, others impale themselves on the points of sticks. Some stab themselves with daggers, and others burn themselves – such things as these are quite apparent.(七十九)积护耗尽苦,方知财多祸。贪金涣散人,脱苦遥无期。经历了积聚、守护、耗散钱财,往往为我们带来一连串的烦恼;这时才知道财富是一场无止息的灾祸。那些内心被钱财所迷惑的人处于散乱的状态中,因而永远没有机会脱离三有的痛苦。Due to the torment involved in collecting it, protecting and finally losing it, I should realize wealth to be fraught with infinite problems, those who are distracted by their attachment to it have no opportunity to gain freedom from the misery of conditioned existence.(八十)贪欲生众苦,害多福利少,如彼拖车牲,唯得数口草。贪欲财利的人一定会时常感到悲痛,因为这种行为害多利少;就好像一头正在拉车的牲畜牛马一样,只得吃几口路边的草,得不偿失。In the same way as animals drawing carriages are only able to eat a few mouthfuls of grass, likewise desirous people have many disadvantages such as these and little profit.(八十一)彼利极微薄,虽畜亦易得;为彼勤苦众,竟毁暇满身。其实,像养家糊口这些微小的利益,就算是傍生也能垂手可得;可是这位活该的苦命者,竟然为了小利而奔波受苦,糟蹋了难得的暇满人身。And since even animals can obtain that (little profit), those who are gained by their (previous) actions waste these leisures and endowments so difficult to find for the sake of something trivial that is not so scarce.(八十二)诸欲终坏灭,后堕地狱等。为此瞬息乐,须久历艰困。 五欲总是会坏灭的,但是贪着它却会使

入菩萨行讲义 第十八讲 静虑品

人堕入地狱等恶趣。为了贪图这点瞬间的快乐,必须长期忍受艰难困苦。This exertion is constantly made for the sake of the body, which is definitely transient, insignificant, and falls into hells and the like.(八十三)彼困千万分,便足成佛道。欲者较菩萨,苦多无菩提。只要以追逐欲乐所付出千万分之一的艰辛努力去修行正法,佛果已经在望了。其实贪欲者受到的痛苦,往往比菩萨道上所面对的痛苦更大,而且还没有证得菩提的福份。With even a billionth part of that diligence, there can be Buddhahood. Sensualists have suffering greater than the suffering of the Path, but they have no Awakening.(八十四)思惟地狱苦,始知诸欲患,非毒兵器火,险地所能拟。如果仔细思惟地狱等恶趣的极度痛苦,便会发现其实兵器、毒药、烈火、险境或者是怨敌等,都比不上五欲带给我们的伤害。When having contemplated the miseries of hell, (it will be clear that) there is nothing comparable to the harm caused to desirous beings by weapons, poison, fire, ravines and foes.(八十五)故当厌诸欲,欣乐阿兰若1,离诤无烦恼,寂静山林中。如是对五欲感到畏惧后,便应该对森林和寂静深山生起欣悦安住之心,寂静无人的山林没有任何的争吵和滋扰。Having in this way developed disillusion with desire, I

入菩萨行讲义 第十八讲 静虑品

should generate joy for solitude. The fortunate ones stroll in peaceful forests, devoid of disputes and disturbing conceptions.(八十六)皎洁明月光,清凉似檀香,倾泄平石上,如宫意生欢。林风无声息,徐徐默吹送,有福瑜伽士,踱步思利他。2寂静森林,微风徐徐吹拂,踏着轻柔宽阔的鸭卵石,禅修岩窟空广,大如王宫。皎洁的月光清凉,犹如檀香,令人透心凉快;这位具福德的瑜伽士踱着细步,思考着如何去利益众生。The fortunate ones, caressed by silent and gentle forest breezes, pace on pleasant boulders. Spacious like palaces, cooled by sandalwood-like moon rays, and ponder how to benefit others.(八十七)空舍岩洞树,随时任意住,尽舍护持苦,无忌恣意行。无人的空屋、岩洞和大树下,随时都可以任意安住,这样便可抛弃储存和守护财物的痛苦,无拘无束,逍遥自在地修行。They dwell for as long as they wish in empty houses, at the feet of trees and in caves. Having abandoned the pain of clinging to and guarding possessions, they abide independently, free of care.(八十八)离贪自在行,谁亦不相干;王侯亦难享,知足闲居欢。任君随意安住,既无家累,又不受任何人的束缚,谁都与我不相干。就算是人间的帝王,也难享有这种知足的山居修行之乐。Living as they choose, desirele

入菩萨行讲义 第十八讲 静虑品

ss, having no ties with anyone – even the powerful have difficulty finding a life as happy and content as this. 第十八讲完注释1 阿兰若(Aranya):指森林寂静荒野的地方,因这些都是修行人喜欢居住的地方,所以阿兰若亦可指修行场所。2 初基修行人应审时度势,自己现在道行未深,没有真正能力广渡众生,便要先修炼好自己,然后再作打算。正如阿底峡尊者说:「如今五浊之恶世,非为摄受眷仆时,乃为依止静处时;非为调化弟子时,乃为调伏内心时;非为到处游逛时,乃为安住一处时。」应用讨论问题一)贪欲的结果严重则丧命,普通则终日辛劳,一无所得;苦不堪言。试引〈静虑品〉第七十一至七十八颂说明。二)世尊对众生沉溺贪爱,「家」锁系身,身陷轮回,有何教示?三)巴楚仁波切说:「众生因贪心的缘故,所断过的头和肢体不计其数。」玛玑瑙准亦说:「众生为贪欲,而无数次堕入地狱恶趣,所饮用的铁水之多,都已超过了四大海水。」按一般的说法,发菩提心到成佛果历三十三个阿僧祇劫,但众生为贪求瞬间的五欲乐,陷入轮回,至今有多少个阿僧祇劫呢?试引〈静虑品〉颂八十二至八十四,比较贪欲者的愚昧与菩萨行者的高瞻善巧。 四)噶当派仲敦巴认为现在五浊恶世,我们要舍弃世俗,在寂静之处修行愿菩提心,而不是直接饶益众生。而事实上,寂静处能助进修行的功德,试引〈静虑品〉颂八十五至八十八说明。五)试比较〈静虑品〉第三十七颂:「故当独自栖,事少易安乐,灵秀宜人林,止息众散乱」和第八十七颂:「空舍岩洞树,随时任意住,尽舍护持苦,无忌恣意行。」,这两颂所述寂静山林的不同功德。