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入菩萨行讲义 第十六讲 静虑品

导读:第十六讲【静虑品】 Lecture 16 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零四年九月四日 承接〈精进品〉,这次讲座开始第八〈静虑品〉。经过前七品的阐述,我们已闻思不少正法;现在寂天菩萨要我们把这些闻思正法归纳起来,而后进入禅修阶段。为甚么要先闻思,而后再禅修呢?而且既然禅修才是主要部份,为何不直接禅修?原因很简单:如果我们不须闻思佛法的话,为何全智及慈悲的佛要说...
第十六讲【静虑品】 Lecture 16 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零四年九月四日 承接〈精进品〉,这次讲座开始第八〈静虑品〉。经过前七品的阐述,我们已闻思不少正法;现在寂天菩萨要我们把这些闻思正法归纳起来,而后进入禅修阶段。为甚么要先闻思,而后再禅修呢?而且既然禅修才是主要部份,为何不直接禅修?原因很简单:如果我们不须闻思佛法的话,为何全智及慈悲的佛要说这么多的法门呢?其次,光是闻思佛法对改变我们性格,培养正知正念,甚至证悟空性的作用不太大,正如寂天菩萨在〈护正知品〉第十六和十七颂说:「虽久习念诵,及余众苦行;然心散它处,佛说彼无益。」「若不知此心,奥秘法中尊,求乐或避苦,无义终飘泊。」事实上,如果一任自己内心躁动不安的话,那么我们又如何能了解心的本质呢?1未了解心的本质,就谈不上是依佛正见来处理诸法的问题。所以在〈静虑品〉,寂天菩萨就介绍如何降伏这个轮回的心;只有降伏这个轮回的心,才能证悟心的本质。这个轮回的心有四种特征:第一是无明;第二是懵懂(not being aware);第三是情绪容易波动;而第四是信念不足。这四种特质令我们的心永远处于纷乱不安之中。唯有透过静虑,我们的心镜才能回复光明。而寂天菩萨在〈静虑品〉中主要提到的大乘静虑,都是围绕着慈悲和自他相换菩提心的修炼方式等大乘课题。寂天菩萨在第四颂提出静虑大纲,他认为修行最大的障碍在于烦恼,依奢摩他和毗舍那,即止观双运,就可永断烦恼;但在修持止观双运之前,必先修成止;而要修成止,就必须远离贪欲。贪欲最显著的过患是令人散乱。寂天菩萨首先提出散乱是静虑的障碍,修行人若散乱的话,便会置身于烦恼巨兽的利齿之间,实在危险。怎样避免散乱?寂天菩萨简单直接指出:外则断舍尘缘,内则弃除妄念。断舍尘缘是对治散乱的必要条件;没有散乱才可专心修成寂止,然后修成胜观;有了止观,才能伏断烦恼。要断舍的尘缘可分两方面来说:内要断贪着亲友,外要断贪执财利等器世间事物。寂天菩萨提出不明佛法,不肯修行的人都是凡愚;如果修行人与凡愚一同生活,必定下堕;所以「心若赴圣境,何需近凡愚?」至于世间的一切名利,寂天菩萨用了三个字来形容它们的本质:「本应舍」。断除亲友和名利的羁绊后,寂天菩萨强调修行者一定要住在寂静处,他提出了选择寂静处隐居,安心修行的三个标准:(一)事少;(二)易安乐和(三)灵秀宜人。要跟伟大的修行人一样,寂天菩萨喜爱山居修行生活,并以很大篇幅来赞美隐居山林的好处,及对修行的帮助。(一)发起精进已,意当住禅定;心意涣散者,危陷惑牙间。依上一品的方法发起精进以后,应该把心意稳住在禅定中;因为心意沉掉涣散的人,如同住于烦恼巨兽的利齿之间,危险重重。Having developed enthusiasm in this way, I should place my mind in concentration. For the man whose mind is distracted dwells between the fangs of disturbing conceptions.(二)身心若寂静,散乱即不生,故应舍世间,尽弃诸俗虑。如果身心远离尘嚣和欲望,(禅定的障碍)散乱就不会生起;故此应舍离世间,进而完全抛弃一切尘俗的思虑。But through solitude of body and mind no distractions will occur. Therefore I should forsake the worldly life and completely discard distorted conceptions.(三)贪亲爱利等,则难舍世间;故当尽弃彼,随智修观行。如果贪恋亲友,爱执名利等俗事,自己便很难舍离世间;所以应当完全舍弃一切贪爱,并依循智者所说的原则去思惟修习。Worldly life is not forsaken because of attachment (to people) and due to craving for material gain and the like; therefore I should entirely forsake these things, for this is the way in which the wise behave.(四)有止诸胜观,能灭诸烦恼。知已先求止,止由离贪成2。依靠寂止所生的胜观,才能灭尽种种烦恼种子3。知道了这个道理后,应当首先努力去求得寂止;而想修成寂止,必须先使内心远离世间的贪着4。Having understood that disturbing conceptions are completely overcome by superior insight endowed with calm abiding. First of all I should search for calm abiding. This is achieved through the genuine joy of those unattached to worldly life.(五)自身本无常,犹贪无常人,纵历百千生,不见所爱人。自己本是无常易坏的人,如果还要贪爱无常的亲友(而造罪),那只有堕入于恶趣,纵经百千次的转生,也没有机会遇见自己所喜爱的人。Because of the obsession one transient being has for other transient beings, he will not see his beloved ones again for many thousand of lives.(六)未遇则不喜,不能入等至;纵见不知足,如昔因爱苦。如果看不见所爱的人,不单只闷闷不乐,而且亦不能住于静虑。就算见到他们,亦不会感到满足;反而会因为强烈的欲望而令自己受到折磨,如同看不到他们时一样痛苦。Not seeing them I am unhappy and my mind cannot be settled in equipoise; even if I see them there is no satisfaction and, as before, I am tormented by craving.(七)若贪诸有情,则障实性慧,亦毁厌离心,终遭愁叹苦。如果贪执有情,则会障蔽自己洞察诸法实相的智慧,也会毁坏导向解脱的厌离生死之心,最终在虚幻的轮回生死中迷失而忧恼。Through being attached to living beings I am completely obscured from the perfect reality. My disillusion with cyclic existence perishes and in the end I am tortured by sorrow.(八)若心专念彼,此生将虚度,无常众亲友,亦坏真常法。由于思念爱侣,生命就在痛苦中迅速消逝了,而且亲友是无常的个体,于是错过了真常法。By thinking only of them, this life will pass without any meaning. Furthermore, impermanent friends and relatives will even destroy the eternal Dharma which leads to liberation.(九)行为同凡愚,必堕三恶趣;心若赴圣境,何需近凡愚5?如果自己的行为和凡愚者一样,那必定会堕向三恶趣;自心如果向往解脱圣境,又何必亲近愚痴凡夫而添加逆缘呢?If I behave in the same way as the childish, I shall certainly proceed to lower realm. And if I am led there by those unequal (to the Noble Ones), what is the use of entrusting myself to the childish? (十)剎那成密友,须臾复结仇,喜处亦生瞋,凡夫6取悦难。此刻的亲密朋友可能变成下一刻的敌人;对于本应欢喜感恩的善行,他们亦会变得生气忿怒;真难令凡夫满足悦意。One moment they are friends, and in the next instant they become enemies. Since they become angry even in joyful situations, it is difficult to please ordinary people.(十一)忠告则生瞋,反劝离诸善,若不从彼语,瞋怒堕恶趣。给(凡夫)好的建议,他们不但感到忿怒,还会反劝我们放弃各种善法;如果不听从他们的话,他们还感到忿怒,堕入痛苦的生死轮回中。They are angry when something of benefit is said and they also turn me away from what is beneficial. If I do not listen to what they say, they become angry and hence proceed to lower realms.(十二)妒高竞相等,傲卑赞复骄,逆耳更生瞋,处俗怎得益。(凡夫)对胜于自己的人生嫉妒心;对与自己相若的则生争强竞胜心;对卑微的人又生傲慢心;受到称赞又会骄矜自满;听到批评更是怒气冲冲。与这样的凡夫交往,又怎会有利益呢?They are envious of superiors, competitive with equals, arrogant towards inferiors, conceited when praised. And if anything unpleasant is said they become angry. Never is any benefit derived from the childish.(十三)伴愚必然生,自赞毁他过,好谈世间乐,无义不善事7。与凡愚者亲近交往,必定会导致自己犯下自赞毁他;甚至闲谈轮回是如何的快乐;谈话内容不外是一些无聊之事,伤风败德的不善之事。Through associating with the childish, there will certainly ensure unwholesomeness such as praising myself and belittling others and discussing the joys of cyclic existence.(十四)是故近见友,徒然自招损,以乐无惑心,独自住静处8。由于与亲友有联系,以致面临种种逆缘。我应独自一人与无烦恼的心快乐共处。Devoting myself to others in this way will bring about nothing but misfortune. I shall live alone happily with a non-afflicted mind.(十五)故应远凡愚,会时喜相迎,亦莫太亲密,善系君子谊9。行者应疏远凡愚。以幽默的态度令到相遇的人感到喜悦,并不是用亲密的态度10,而是以平常心,不亲不疏地仁厚处众。I should flee far away from childish people. When they are encountered, though, I should gratify them with pleasantries. I should behave well merely out of courtesy. But not become greatly familiar.(十六)犹如蜂采蜜,为法化缘已,如昔未谋面,淡然而处之。 就像蜜蜂采蜜一样,修行人为了维持修法而外出化缘,取得所需的衣食之后,便要如同素昧平生,以平常心与他人相处。In th

入菩萨行讲义 第十六讲 静虑品

e same way as a bee takes honey from a flower, I should take merely (what is necessary) for the practice of Dharma but remain unfamiliar as though I had never seen them before.(十七)吾当受恭敬,众人皆喜我。若持此骄慢,殁后定生惧。如果有人这样想:「我既富有,又受敬重;很多人都喜欢我。」若因此生起骄慢,死后一定难逃堕落恶趣的恐惧痛苦。“I have much material wealth as well as honor, and many people like me,” nurturing self-importance in this way I shall be made terrified after death. (十八)故汝愚痴意,无论贪何物,定感苦果报,千倍所贪得。因此,不辨利害得失的愚痴意识啊!无论你今生贪图名闻利养等任何事物,将来必定会招感得到千倍所贪事物的痛苦报应。So, you thoroughly confused mind, by the piling up of whatever objects you are attached to, misery a thousandfold will ensue.(十九)故智不应贪,贪生三途怖。应当坚信解,彼性本应舍。 所以有智慧的人,千万不要贪着外境财利,贪着这些将引生堕落三恶道的恐惧。应该坚定地信解:从本性来看,名利等事物都是应舍离之物。11Hence, the wise should not be attached. (Because) fear is born from attachment. With a firm mind understand well that it is the natu

入菩萨行讲义 第十六讲 静虑品

re of these things to be discarded!(二十)纵吾财物丰,令誉遍称扬,所集诸名利,非随心所欲。即使我拥有丰厚的财富,美好的名声;这些经努力而聚集的名利,却无法随心所欲地伴我一起到后世去。Although I may have much material wealth, be famous and well spoken of, whatever fame and renown I have amassed has no power to accompany me after death.(二十一)若有人毁我,赞誉何足喜?若有人赞我,讥毁何足忧?如果还有人毁谤我,那么再多的赞美又怎值得我高兴呢?如果还有人赞美我,那么讥讽毁谤又怎值得我忧伤呢?If there is someone who despises me what pleasure can I have in being praised? And if there is another who praises me what displeasure can I have in being despised?(二十二)有情种种心,诸佛难尽悦,何况劣如我?故应舍此虑。有情众生有种种不同的性格和爱好,就连诸佛也难以使他们称心满意,更何况是我这样卑劣无能的凡夫呢?所以我应该放弃讨好世人的念头。If even the Conqueror was unable to please the various inclinations of different beings, then what need to mention evil person such as I? Therefore I should give up the intention to associate with the worldly.(二十三)睥睨穷行者,诋毁富修士;性本难为侣,处彼怎得乐? 凡愚对清

入菩萨行讲义 第十六讲 静虑品

贫的苦行者非常蔑视,对利养丰厚的修行人又经常诋毁;凡愚的本性根本就难以结为法侣;和他们在一起,怎会得到真正的快乐呢?They scorn those who have no material gain and say bad things about those who do. How can they who are by nature so hard to get along with ever derive any pleasure (from me)?(二十四)如来曾宣示:凡愚若无利,郁郁终寡欢,故莫友凡愚。佛说愚者不是我们的朋伴,因为他们的喜好无不由私利而来。而当失去所拥有的私利时,愚痴的凡夫就会闷闷不乐。因此不要再与那些凡俗之人交往12。It has been said by the Tathāgatas that one should not befriend the childish, because the affection of childish people do not arise without self-interest.(二十五)林中鸟兽树,不出刺耳音,伴彼心常乐,何时共安居?山林中的树木、飞鸟和走兽不会发出刺耳烦心的言词声音,与它们相处,内心会非常安乐平静,我何时才能和它们一起快乐的安居呢?When shall I come to dwell in forests amongst the deer, the birds and the trees, that say nothing unpleasant and are delightful to associate with?(二十六)何时住树下、岩洞无人寺?愿心不眷顾,断舍尘世贪!我何时能心无罣碍地安住在树荫下、岩洞中或无人干扰的寺庙里修行呢?但愿我的内心不再眷念家宅和亲友,断舍一切对尘世的贪欲。 When dwelling in caves, in empty shrines and at the foot of trees, never look back–cultivate detachment. (二十七)何时方移栖,天然辽阔地,不执为我所,无贪恣意行13? 我何时才能迁居于辽阔的自然环境中,不执着它是我所拥有的地域,心无贪执而自在的修行?When shall I come to dwell in places not clung to as “mine” which are by nature wide and open and where I may behave as I wish without attachment?(二十八)何时居无惧,唯持钵等器14,匪盗不需衣,乃至不蔽体?我何时才能无恐惧地安住,(不去保护自身)只保留钵、滤水器等几件必需的用具,以及连盗匪也不会要的衣服,甚至不必费力去遮蔽这个身体?When shall I come to live without fear having just a begging bowl and a few odd things, wearing clothes not wanted by anyone and not even having to hide this body?(二十九)何时赴寒林,触景生此情:他骨及吾体,悉皆坏灭法。我何时才能够到坟场墓地去,跟其他人的尸骨比较一下,我这个最终同样会腐烂的物质身体?Having departed to the cemeteries, when shall I come to understand that this body of mine and the skeletons of others are equal in being subject to decay?(三十)吾身速腐朽,彼臭令狐狼,不敢趋前尝,其变终至此。同样,我这个身体很快便会死亡,也会腐烂变臭,连贪肉的豺狼也不敢走近来品尝这恶臭的身体;这样的无常坏灭结局,最后一定会降临。Then, because of its odor, not even the foxes will come close to this body of mine; for this is what will become of it.(三十一)孑然此一身,生时骨肉连,死后各分散,何况是他亲?自己孤零零地独身来到世间,出生时骨肉本是连在一起的,可是死亡之后也得各自分散,更何况是个体相异的亲友呢?Although this body arose as one thing, the bones and flesh with which it was created will break up and separate. How much more so will friends and others?(三十二)生既孤独生,殁复独自亡,苦痛无人分,亲眷有何用?每个人不但独个儿出生,其实死亡时也是独自一人。任何人也分担不了自己弥留(四大分解)的痛苦。制造障碍的亲友眷属又有何用处?At birth, I was born alone and at death too I shall die alone. As this pain cannot be shared by others, what use are obstacle-making friends?(三十三)如诸行路客,不执暂留舍,如是行有道,不应恋生家。 好比旅客不会贪着暂时歇脚的旅店;同样,在轮回三有中打转的我,也不应该留恋偶尔一遇的亲友和家园。In the same way as travellers on a highway leave one place and reach another, likewise those travelling on the path of conditioned existence leave one birth and reach another.(三十四)及至众亲友,伤痛且哀泣,四大掮吾体,届时赴寒林。等到死亡时,亲友们都会围着我哀伤地哭泣,然后由四个人扛起我的尸体,送往尸陀林去。既然最终也难逃离这结局,为何不趁早往那儿修行呢?Until the time comes for this body to be supported by four pall-bearers while the worldly (stand around) stricken with grief, until then I shall retire to the forest.(三十五)无亲亦无怨,只身隐山林,先若视同死,殁已无人忧。所以我应及早离开亲友和怨仇,独自一人隐居寂静的山林去修法。如果亲友们认为我早已不在人世,那么纵然死了,也不会有人为我伤痛哀愁。Befriending no one and begrudging no one, my body will dwell alone in solitude. If I am already counted as a dead man, when I die there will be no mourners.(三十六)四周既无人,哀伤或为害,故修随念佛,无人扰令散。(若果真的不幸死掉,临终之时)四周无人陪伴,无人来痛哭悲伤,也无人为自己带来伤害;当自己临终随念诸佛菩萨时,便不会受到干扰,不会分心散乱。And as there will be no one around to disturb me with their mourning, thus there will be no one to distract me from my recollection of the Buddha.(三十七)故当独自栖,事少易安乐,灵秀宜人林,止息众散乱。因此,我应当独自一个人栖隐在容易生活、没有琐事违缘扰恼、风景灵秀、令人心旷神怡的森林中,努力止息一切掉举散乱。Therefore I shall dwell alone, happy and contented with few difficulties, in very joyful and beautiful forests, pacifying all distractions.(三十八)尽弃俗虑已,吾心当专一,为令入等至,制惑而精进。没有世俗一切的联系和顾虑后,接下来我便应该集中,心系一缘;为了使自心平稳地住于三摩地,便要制伏一切烦恼而精勤修持。Having given up all other intentions, being motivated by only one thought, I shall strive to settle my mind in equipoise (by means of calm abiding) and to subdue it (with superior insight). 第十六讲完 注释1 正如世尊在《法句经》已开宗明义说:「诸法心先导,意主心造作」;心是诸法的导者,心是主,诸法唯心造。2 《入行细疏》第一三七页说:「胜观(insight, vipaśyanā,音译毗钵舍那)具有能够从真如获得正确知识的智慧(wisdom that has the nature of thorough knowledge of reality as it is),而静止(quiescence, śamatha,音译奢摩他)是一种心系一处,令心一境(cittasyikâgratā)的深度专心(samādhi,音译三摩地,意译专注的寂止)。(Quiescence is defined as “meditative concentration that has the characteristic of mental single-pointedness”.)3 寂止(奢摩他)的性质就是把心专注地安住在它的所缘境上。这种专注禅修透过长期训练,例如九住心圆满,将会产生身心轻安之乐;这时寂止的修习就完成了。但瑜伽师无法透过修止来断除障碍。修止只能暂时压制、平息烦恼与妄念,没有智慧明光,烦恼的潜藏习气无法彻底被摧毁,因此完全断除烦恼是不可能的。例如在《三摩地王经》(Samādhi-rāja-sūtra)记载有一外道乌札克(Udraka),因修止期间时间过长,头发也生得极长,这时有老鼠爬到他头上,并吃掉他一些头发。他出定后发觉头发被吃,愤怒得气炸了;烦恼又再涌现。这说明了单是修寂止的局限;《解深密经》(Samdhi-nirmocana-sūtra, Unravelling of the Thought Sūtra)说:「寂止可以适当地压制烦恼,而胜观则能彻底摧毁烦恼的潜藏习气。」而胜观(毗钵舍那)是建基于寂止、九住心的成熟上,以最清楚的方式,更高度深入直接或间接显示而导入空性,破斥自我,实现人无我、法无我;胜观(毗钵舍那)是以胜义谛作为所缘境。4 莲华戒(Kamala-śilā,约740-795):在《修习次第》(Stages of Meditation)中说:「成办寂止的先决条件有五:(1)住在有助于修习奢摩他的环境;(2)少欲知足;(3)不要从事太多活动;(4)戒律清净和(5)完全断除贪欲和其他妄想分别。一个有助于修习奢摩他的环境应当具备下列五个特质:(i)易得:能毫不费力地获得别人提供的食物及衣服;(ii)住处佳:没有恶人或敌人为邻;(iii)风水佳:远离疾病之地;(iv)友伴佳:与持守戒律及见解相同的朋友为伍和(v)生活质素好:白天很少人拜访,夜晚没有什么嘈杂的声音。第二,少欲,就是对于太多或美好的衣服,例如法衣等等,不要过度贪着;知足,就是即使仅得到简陋的法衣等,也总会感到满足;第三,不要从事太多活动,指的是停止买卖等对修习奢摩他不利的活动、避免与在家人及出家人过从甚密,并完全断除医卜星相等行为。第四,何谓戒律清净?就是不违犯大乘及声闻乘二种律仪当中的自性罪及佛制罪的戒条,倘若不小心违犯的话,也应立即以懊悔心如法悔过。虽然在声闻律仪当中说过:他胜罪(出家人四种根本堕:不净行、不与取、杀生和妄说上人法)不可忏除,但是假如具有承认错误的悔过力(the power of repentance, viduś-bala)和将来不再造的止恶力(the power of resolve, nirirtti-bala),以及由于了知造业的心本是无自性的,或串习一切法无自性的缘故,则此人的戒律就可以说是清净了;关于这点,应该可从《未生怨王除懊悔经》当中获得了解;我们应除去懊悔,并致力于禅修,训练自己在烦恼生起前已觉知,并励力将它呵斥消除。久而久之,内心的邪恶烦恼便会消退;明净的智慧因而增长。第五,怎样完全断除贪欲和其他妄想分别?思惟贪着此世及未来的生生世世的种种过患,将有助于去除这方面的错误观念。在轮回里,美丽的事物及丑陋的事物,二者都有一些共通之处,就是它们均是不稳定的,而且更随时朝向坏灭,很快地我们便会和所有的这些事物分离,这是无庸置疑的。因此,要观修为什么我们还贪着这些事物呢?如此便能舍弃错误的观念。」5 博多瓦格西说:「初学者的意志本来就不很坚定,如果再亲近世间愚夫,与他们共同交谈、做事,那我们今生来世的安乐一定会全部被毁坏。」达赖喇嘛补充说:「凡愚只管暂时,不知未来;只追求眼前暂时快乐,不为究竟快乐着想,将会造作许多恶业,堕入三恶道。」6 凡夫(prthag-jana):玄奘法师在《大般若波罗蜜多经》第九会〈能断金刚分〉(Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā)译为异生;因凡夫未解脱,无法生于佛剎;随业流转,沦生六道,无有一定,故称异生。根据《入行细疏》第一三八页说:「凡夫(prthag-jana)是指那些不是圣贤(āryas)的人,并且尚未能得现证法界同体性(direct realization of identitylessness)。」7 达赖喇嘛说:「何谓恶友?并非头长角,青面缭牙,恐怖狰狞。可能面目和善,笑容可掬,甚至乐于帮助你,让你快乐,更希望常伴你左右。但是由于智慧不足,眼光太狭隘,反而带给我们负面的影响。」8「以乐无惑心,独自住静处。」藏文本作「彼既无益我,吾亦未利彼。」说明了凡夫对自己修行没有什么利益可言,而自己亦不能给他们带来什么利益。 9 君子谊是以「君子之交清净如水」的态度去与凡愚相处。所谓君子之谊,除了庄敬稳重、与人相处不怨不亲、保持距离、公平之外,还有一种仁厚的倾向;不能有半点虚伪。10 世俗中交朋结友总带一些企图,希望从朋友处获得一点儿好处,所以初相识时便特别亲热,但这种不净的动机最后为双方带来痛苦伤害的结果。同时,希望愈高,失望愈大,最终导致怨怼结局。此外,还会过份贪执对方,当他没有配合或有一点儿过错,便马上产生反感,怨恨收场。11 梵本作:「故此智者是不会对名利贪欲。恐惧由贪欲而起;名利亦会自行消逝;对名利要坚忍不屈,淡然处之。」12 梵译本与藏本不同。梵译本第二十四及二十五颂合成为藏译本颂文第二十五颂。梵译本颂第二十五后,Wallace说在德格藏文版中没有此颂。本文依藏文本排列章节。13 达赖喇嘛说:「我们应该学习,该安住时就安住,该离开时就离开,无任何罣碍,轻松自在。」14 密勒日巴尊者说:「假装苦行的样子,所修却是快乐佛法,绝对不会有任何成就。」应用讨论问题一)寂天菩萨提出要断除禅定的障碍,就要外断舍世间,内弃除妄念;先远离世间的愦闹,安住于寂静之处,然后远离妄念,那么禅定的障碍-散乱便不会生起。你同意这个说法吗?试阐述之。二)要断除散乱,避免禅定发生障碍,要做哪两样功夫?试略述之。三)试举例说明舍家割爱只是舍弃狭隘的贪爱烦恼,代之而是真正报答轮回父母的恩德。四)巴楚仁波切说:「世俗之事,愈做愈没有边际;你如果停下来,那就是它的边际。」修行人内则贪爱亲友,外则追求名利;这人便一事无成。试依《入菩萨行》说明。五)古语有云:「出家才有证道缘,恋家岂有证道时。」一方面贪图世俗五欲乐,又要得解脱安乐,就好像骑乘两头马,永远没有可能成就。试引寂天菩萨的〈静虑品〉说明。六)何谓恶友?世尊在《宝云经》说有九种凡夫异生,我们要敬而远之,否则会为自己带来违缘的障碍;并提醒我们以「虽乐远离此恶知识,然不于彼起恶心及损害意」的态度来疏远这些人。试阐述之。七)试依寂天菩萨第十五颂,阐述修行人应持的「交友态度」。八)修行人在接受别人的布施时,寂天菩萨说只消念经回向功德,便是合情合法的回报。别人的慷慨帮助,修行人接受后,不应贪着施主,要把他当作素昧生平的陌路人。表面似不近人情,但其中蕴涵很多道理,试阐述之。九)阿底峡尊者说:「贪欲不得善趣乐,并将断送解脱命。」现今很多修行人因获得渊博学识,丰厚资财,因多闻,因得到别人认同,而得到名利供养,于是傲慢放逸;这些修行人必下地狱;试依颂十七和十八说明。十)有人以为远离世间凡愚会违背菩萨戒,亦因之而失去布施安忍的悲田;但是我们要有效地去帮助凡愚离开轮回沼泽,自己必先要站在坚实的岸上;吉美岭巴说:「现今时恶人横野,静处精勤成自利,如翼未丰不能翔,不具神通难利他,应修自利心利他,散乱愦闹魔诱惑。」行持菩萨道是有次第,要循序渐进的。龙树圣人常说如果我们没有能力去利他,但常心怀利他心,亦已实践利他菩萨行。请依《入菩萨行》颂十七至二十八,说明远离尘缘,但常心怀救济的好处。十一)寂天菩萨说:「无常主控着我们,到死时,与生俱来的身体尚且分离,骨肉内脏亦会四分五裂,变成各不相连的微尘,何况是亲友呢?有些人舍不下亲人,心怕一旦舍家辞亲,亲人不知怎办。这是不明因缘果报。每个人都由自己的业力去决定命运,并不会因自己一人之力而决定他们生活好坏。所以只有教导他们选择行善去恶,寻求解脱,才是真正帮助到亲人。留下自己或者金钱与他们一同生活,只有负累他们。而事实上,他们最终都要独自走完这期人生之路。众生生也孤单,死也孤单。」试引《心止师教I》〈寿命无常〉说明这义。十二)「人生到处知何似,应似孤鸿踏雪泥,泥上偶然留指爪,鸿飞那复计东西。」我们在六道中轮回,总会投生于与自己有因缘的某一个家庭,但这个家庭及暂时相遇的亲友,就如同在旅店借宿的旅客,很快就会逐个离散。我们应珍惜大家这份缘份,尽量和睦相处,而不应起贪执。试引寂天菩萨偈颂说明。十三)历来伟大的修行人都喜欢独自在山洞中修行;密勒日巴尊者这样说:「我病无人问,我死无人哭,能死此山中,瑜伽心愿足;门外无人迹,室内无血迹,能死此山中,瑜伽心愿足;去时无人问,来去无定处,能死此山中,瑜伽心愿足; 尸烂为虫食,筋脉为蝇吮,能死此山中,瑜伽心愿足。」修行人断除世间凡愚的纷扰,最好是及早隐居;方便去除散乱。试引寂天菩萨偈颂说明。十四)寂天菩萨提出选择隐居之地条件有三,分别是:(一)事少:很少人或琐事等违缘扰恼;(二)易安乐:易得养命的衣食资具,多顺缘引生安乐;(三)灵秀宜人。试从你读过莲华戒的《修习次第》或其他佛经,列举说明选择寂静处的标准。